If you have been given a task to write a research paper, you should not begin writing the paper itself unless you have created a list of the key concepts and ideas. At first, you have to write a brief outline of the ideas you want to incorporate in the paper, which will make the writing process easier. However, do not forget that every claim should be logically connected to the chosen topic.


How to Write an Outline

  • Give a thesis statement at the very beginning of the outline. In such a way, you will write all arguments in relation to the central idea.
  • Write down a couple of arguments you want to incorporate in your paper. Every essay should present at least 3 supporting ideas, but their number should not exceed 5 ones.
  • Create an introductory paragraph only after you have written a thesis statement and main arguments. The introduction should present a topic that will be further explored in the paper.

APA Formatting Style

Whenever students have to write a research paper, their professors ask to use the APA citing style since it is common and widely used regardless of the subject. Students should be well aware of the APA formatting style rules. Consequently, the article presented below strives to present necessary information on how to cite sources in the APA style.

If you would like to write a trustworthy essay or research paper, you have to use only credible and scholarly sources to persuade the audience to accept your point. It means that you have to indicate such information as who wrote the idea your present, when it happened, and what method was used to collect the data.

Remember that any idea that was taken from the outside source should be appropriately cited with the identification of the author. It will inform a reader about sources that were utilized while writing a research paper. However, if you experience difficulties in writing an effective research paper, you can always buy it cheap from our online writers.

Steps to Remember about APA Citing

Step 1. Define which types of sources you want to utilize in your custom essay or research paper. You can easily use journals, books, electronic sources, etc.

Step 2. Find a sample paper on how to cite this kind of source.

Step 3. Follow the provided sample citing the outside ideas. Do not forget that citing requires appropriate punctuation. However, you should realize that there is a need to provide explicit information about the publication in the reference list.

Information presented below highlights the sample of citing a book in the APA formatting style.


At first, write an author’s name and initials. If the book comprises several authors, you have to present their last names and initials separating them with commas. Moreover, use ampersand (&) before the name of the last author in a sequence.

  • If the book presents editors rather than authors, include abbreviations indicated below.
  • Capitalize only those names in titles that appear for the first time or are proper names.
  • Do not forget to indicate the city of the publication as well as the state (its abbreviation).
  • If you cite information taken from the chapter of the book, you have to present pages as well.
  • Whenever you write an abbreviation, leave a space after it. Moreover, there should be a dash before the numbers of pages. Whenever you use the APA formatting style, it is obligatory to indicate the year of publication of the source, which some other styles do not require.

One may find such abbreviations found in APA citing:

p. – single page

et al. – multiple authors

n. d. – date of publication is unknown

Ed. – one editor.

Very often students have to present key terms using the APA citing style. In such a case, you have to include a term in the text and reflect it in the reference list following the sample below:

Name of the author with initials. (Year of publication). Title of the entry. Volume, pages. Place of publication, state: name of a publisher.

If you incorporate some information taken from the anthology, the reference will be written in such a way:

Name of the author. Year of publication. Selection heading. Editor’s name. Anthology title. Volume and page numbers. City and state of publication: Publisher.

How to Write a Conclusion

Every research paper should present a conclusion, which is a short summary of the whole paper and its main concepts. However, if you have given a number of ideas in your paper, you have to summarize only the most valid ones. Do not forget to place a conclusion as a separate paragraph of the paper.