Nursing Sample Essay: Impact of Robotic Surgery

robotic surgery

Robotic surgery helps surgeons to perform various critical surgeries through computer-assisted technologies. Robotic technologies are developed to overcome the complications of open surgeries. In robotically-assisted surgery, surgeons use computer technologies or telemanipulator to regulate instruments, therefore, robotic surgery reduces pain and injuries of human body. Moreover, telemanipulator consists of robotic arms, manipulators and end-effectors. These devices guide surgeons to perform surgeries without moving the instruments directly. Usually, open surgeries are performed by using autonomous medical instruments, whereas robotic surgery uses steel tools. As result, surgeons can perform surgical procedures smoothly. Also, it eliminates the tissue traumas of open surgeries. In addition, in robotic surgery, surgeon uses a computer to control the robotic arms. Therefore, it requires less time and assistance. The new robotic technologies have already improved the medical surgical procedures. The following paper analyses the impacts of robotic surgery.

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Analysis

In 21st century, computer-assisted surgical instruments guide surgeons to perform complex surgeries. These instruments have various positive impacts on medical science. The new innovative technologies decrease the incidences of wound infections and reduce postoperative pains. Moreover, surgical robots are self-powered. Therefore, experts can program computer-controlled devices to locate or manipulate surgical instruments. These technologies help to improve specific open surgeries, such as cardiothoracic surgery. Currently, robotic surgical instruments are completely governed by surgeons. They work as remote extensions that help experts to perform accessible surgeries. However, medical scientists believe that in future robots will have the capacity to perform independent medical procedures. Experts named these instruments master-slave manipulators. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two master-slave systems. They are the da Vinci Surgical System and ZEUS system. These systems have two basic components that are connected through computer and data cable. These include the surgeon’s master console and patient-side slave robotic manipulators (Morris, 2005).

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The Surgeon’s Master Console

The surgeon’s master console provides three-dimensional views to a surgeon through endoscopic camera. It enters in patient’s body with the help of robotic technology. Moreover, master manipulators are controlled by surgeons with the help of joysticks or handles. When a surgeon makes real-time movements of joystick, the manipulators convert the movement through motion scaling system. The system helps to reduce large natural movements into ultra-precise micro-movement. In addition, the tremor filtering system increases the accuracy of surgeons’ movement. Furthermore, the control panel system adjusts various major and minor functions, such as camera focus, motion scaling system, and other movement units. Thus, surgeon’s master control system guides experts to provide accessible surgical service (Morris, 2005). 

Patient-Side Slave Robotic Manipulators

Patient-side slave robotic manipulators are the robotic arms that help to manipulate camera and surgical instruments. These arms use laparoscopic ports to connect instruments with the patient’s body. Moreover, the da Vinci system can handle various surgical instruments through micro articulation system. It duplicates the motion of human wrists to create best possible motion around the body. Also, it consists of seven degrees of freedom. Therefore, experts can perform various movements inside the patient’s body without complications (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).

Impact of Robotic Surgery on Clinical Services

Robotic surgery addresses various limitations of traditional thoracoscopic or laparoscopic surgeries. It allows medical authorities to perform advanced surgical processes through minimal invasive approaches. The robotic surgery lowers the labor of surgeon and medical staffs. Currently, a medical expert can perform surgeries through robotic controlling consoles. Moreover, in past, medical experts used two-dimensional images to operate various surgeries. These images may not provide details information about the patient’s body. On the other hand, the robotic surgery offers three-dimensional views that guide surgeons to identify the depth perceptions. Besides, the surgeons can use steady motion robotic cameras manually or by voice-activated methods. Furthermore, the robotic arms improve the ranges of motion compared with the traditional surgical instruments. Thus, it helps medical experts to perform complicated surgical movements (Morris, 2005). Studies show that robotic surgery has taken the surgical spectrum to a new level. Also, it decreases the morbidity and mortality rates of surgical operations, and offers accurate, smaller incision and quicker healing surgeries. Likewise, robotic techniques reduce the duration of pain medication, hospital stays, blood losses and surgical pain (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). Usually, open surgery takes long time to recover and long hours to operate. Also, it creates marks or scars in human body. On the contrary, robotic surgery needs limited access of surgical areas and it takes short time. For example, in past, surgeons face various challenges to perform tonsillar carcinoma operations. They accomplished the operation through open surgery of neck. The process took long time to recover and often patients needed to replace tracheotomy tube. However, medical expert Weinstein and his colleague introduced new robotic surgery of tonsillar carcinoma in 2007.Therefore, currently, patients can have the surgery though robotic instruments without replacing the tracheotomy tube. Also, it takes short time to recover (Weinstein, O’Malley, Snyder, Sherman & Quon, 2007).  

Impacts of Robotic Techniques in Various Complex Surgeries

Robotic scientists introduced various new computer-assisted surgeries in last few years. For example, in 2008 a medical team of University of Illinois performed world’s first liver transplantation robotic surgery. Moreover, it was a complicated operation, but the patient recovered in a short time. Currently, experts use robotic surgery for a wide variety of surgeries, such as cardiothoracic, colon and rectal, cardiology and electrophysiology, gynecology and gastrointestinal surgery (Morris, 2005).

Cardiology and Electrophysiology

Robotic surgery helps heart patients to get relief from pain by using robotic stereotactic surgery. Also, the surgeons use Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) to increase safety and accuracy in ablation process for cardiac dysrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Moreover, it reduces radiation exposures for surgeons and patients by utilizing steerable catheters. Experts believe that robotic technologies developed interventional cardiology by creating automatic 3D mapping system of vasculature and heart (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). Furthermore, computerized catheter guidance system and force feedback analyzers help to increase heart surgery success rates. Currently, experts use robotic technologies in three types of heart surgeries, namely atrial septal defect repair surgery repairs the holes between the upper parts of the heart, mitral valve repairing surgery repairs specific valves that prevent blood cells from reentering the heart chambers, and coronary artery bypass surgery reroutes the blood supplies. Thus, robotic technology advances cardiology and electrophysiology (Morris, 2005).

Colon and Rectal Surgery

Studies show that in colorectal surgery, robotic technologies have better results than in traditional laparoscopic surgery. Also, it is safer and quicker. Experts define that it costs similar fare as laparoscopic surgery because the traditional abdominal operations need long time for patients’ preparation before surgery. Moreover, many surgeons consider that the 3D dimensional views of robotic surgery are much better than traditional surgery. Also, it has better optical viewing angles. Additionally, often surgeons need to see internal organs in a larger and wider view to sustain accuracy; such systems are not available in laparoscopic surgeries. However, robotic instruments have already made colorectal surgeries more convenient than traditional nes by introducing close-up view features. Especially, this feature provides ureteral protections (Morris, 2005).

Cardiothoracic Surgery

The da Vinci device helps surgeons to perform Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass (TECAB) and Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass (MIDCAB) surgeries. Medical experts operated first robotic cardiac procedure in 1999. After that successful robotic surgery, surgeons applied similar procedures in tumor resection, mitral valve and lung resection surgeries. In 2002, Dr. Boyd and Stahl of Cleveland Clinic explained the characteristics and advantages of minimally invasive robotic hybrid process. Later, experts expanded the roles of robots in coronary bypass surgeries. Also, medical scientists claim that in the future robotic-assistant services will develop hybrid Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) (Business Wire, n.d.).

Gastrointestinal and Gynecological Surgeries

Currently, surgeons can conduct gastrectomy and bariatric surgeries for cancer by applying da Vinci and Zeus robotic technologies. Initially, experts demonstrated the computerized techniques of GI surgery and its advantages. Also, they evaluated new robotic procedures including esophageal fundoplication treatments for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Furthermore, the new technologies address achalasia, pancreatectomy, colon resection and esophagectomy (Morris, 2005).         

Moreover, robotic surgery has extensive scopes in gynecology. Especially, da Vinci system improved gynecologic oncology and benign gynecological procedures. Rochester General Hospital, New York reported that between 2005 and 2008, about 115 patients participated in robotic gynecological surgeries (Rochester Regional Health System, n.d.). These patients’ records, reviews, safety measures and effectiveness reports show that the da Vinci robotic system has high accuracy and success rates compared with traditional gynecological surgeries. Furthermore, gynecologists reported that robotic surgery helps women to get relief from pain in complex and abnormal periods. For example, ovarian tumors, female cancer, fibroids and endometriosis have short, painless and improved treatments in robotic technology (Weinstein, O’Malley, Snyder, Sherman & Quon, 2007). Besides, computerized medical instruments help gynecologists to perform myomectomy, hysterectomy and lymph node biopsies. In the past, these procedures needed large abdominal incisions, but the new computerized procedures eliminated such process. Thus, it also reduces blood loss in robotic surgery. Likewise, da Vinci robotic device assists cancer staging and hysterectomic surgical procedures. In a study, medical experts noticed that robotic techniques reduced the mortality rates on gynecologic cancer operations. Also, they mentioned that robotic surgery procedure curves guide experts to take acute decisions (Business Wire, n.d.).

Neurosurgery and Orthopedics Treatment

Neurosurgical robots guide surgeons to perform various complicated neurosurgery. For example, stereotactic brain surgeries need complex procedures that cause immense risks in traditional surgeries. However, robotic instruments made these treatments easier. Scientists introduced neurosurgical robots in hospital settings in 1997. Currently, these robots are widely available in the United States, Japan and Europe. Moreover, scientists are developing NeuroArm robots, which will be the first MRI compatible robotic system in the near future. Medical reports show that between 2011 and 2012, scientists performed over 160 neurosurgical processes by using robotic stereotaxy. Often, computerized techniques were applied for the treatments of stereotaxic biopsy, epilepsy and various selective resections (Rochester Regional Health System, n.d.).

Furthermore, in early 2000s, Acrobot Company Limited introduced robotic sculptor to perform orthopedic surgeries. These instruments guide surgeons to use bone cutting tool more accurately. In addition, the new Robotic Arm Interactive Orthopedic System (RIO) helps to combine haptics and navigation for total hip replacement and partial knee surgeries. Also, robotic-assisted surgeries guide experts to perform partial knee replacement with CT-free approach (Weinstein, O’Malley, Snyder, Sherman & Quon, 2007).   

Paediatrics and Radiosurgery

Often, child specialists and surgeons face challenges dealing with the traditional pediatric surgeries. Therefore, surgical robots are used in various pediatric procedures. For instance, nissen fundoplication, cholecystectomy and congenital hernia repairing procedures are more convenient in robotic treatment. In 2002, Children’s Hospital of Michigan’s surgeons performed the first robot-assisted surgery and it became popular in American hospitals in a short time. Likewise, the Children’s Hospital of Boston provides a wide range of high level pediatric computerized surgeries. In most cases, the specially trained surgeons use robotic tools to create small surgical openings. These techniques help children to have faster recovery, smaller scars and shorter hospital stay. Besides, Children’s Hospital surgeons expanded the use of robot in various internal operations (Weinstein, O’Malley, Snyder, Sherman & Quon, 2007).  

In addition, the radiosurgery helps adolescent patients to treat tumors by using Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System. It uses image guidance system to create beams of high-energy radiations. Moreover, the system has KUKA KR 240 German robotic device. The robotic device creates multiple radiations from different directions to perform the tumor operations (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).

Urology and Transplant Surgery

Currently, robotic urological surgeries are popular in most of the developed countries. These technologies help surgeons to operate urinary and genital organs through robot-assisted devices. Studies show that most of the American patients use this treatment for prostate cancer treatment. Moreover, open surgeries cannot perform this operation conveniently because surgeons face difficulties to create anatomical access. Furthermore, robotic technology provides accessible service in lesser extent surgery of bladder and kidney cancer surgical treatments. Likewise, the minimal invasive robotic technology offers ultrasound probes for kidney tumor. Also, surgeons can perform prostrate brachytherapy by using flexible needles of robotic equipments (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).    

Moreover, in past decades surgeons had various challenges operating transplant surgeries. These surgeries are quite complicated and technically demanding. Hence, it was virtually unobtainable through traditional laparoscopic surgeries. However, robotic science introduced minimally invasive surgeries in transplant procedures. In addition, the three dimensional visual systems and high resolution video recording of internal organs made robotic surgery more convenient and successful. Furthermore, the wrist type motions and ultramodern instruments help surgeons to perform highly complex surgeries in an effortless method. Currently, surgeons can easily transplant kidney through robotic surgery. Thus, it helps medical science to improve its qualities (Morris, 2005). 

Limitations of Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgical techniques are improving rapidly. However, these technologies have some limitations. First of all, cost effectiveness is an important issue. Also, the yearly maintenance cost is too high. Hence, these technologies are more expensive than open surgeries. Secondly, surgeons reported that initially they cannot get enough experience of new technology. Therefore, they must have practical trainings on patients for longer period. Thus, the surgical staffs may need to keep patients under anesthesia for a long time. Hence, the new technology can create dissatisfaction or regrets to the patients and their families (Morris, 2005).

Conclusion

In conclusion, robotic surgery guides surgeon to perform complicated operations through robotic-assistance. It consists of telemanipulator, robotic arms, joysticks and other modern instruments that reduce the labor of surgeons during surgery. Also, it provides accurate services in a short time. Usually, traditional open surgeries or laparoscopic surgical procedures take long time to treat and require a lot of medications. On the other hand, robotic surgery reduces medical staff involvements and hospital staying periods. In addition, it does not create any scars or marks in medical operations. Surgeons use limited surgical areas to perform operations in robotic technology. Hence, a patient does not loss much blood in such surgeries. Robotic science has various impacts on clinical services. Currently, it addresses a wide range of medical surgeries. Most of these procedures are performed by minimal invasive approaches. Also, in robotic surgery experts can regulate the surgical process by controlling a joystick device. Besides, the technology offers high resolution 3D views of internal organ. Hence, in 21st century surgeons can easily operate various severe operations through robotic equipment. Also, it offers convenient treatments for cardiothoracic, gastrointestinal, gynecological, neurosurgery and orthopedics surgeries. Thus, robotic surgery created various positive impacts on medical science. However, currently, the process has some limitations, such as the cost of robotic service and its new technologies need long time to understand. Hence, the state government should create some policies to reduce its service charges. Also, they should offer effective trainings to the surgeons to operate new robotic instruments. Thus, the government and medical departments can improve robotic surgery.

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