Schizophrenia is a chronic progressive endogenous mental illness. Schizophrenia can be also described as a mental disorder that is caused by a violation of the unity of thought processes and of emotional reactions, which leads to dissociative dementia. A genetic predisposition plays a leading role in the occurrence of schizophrenia. On the other hand, external factors, such as trauma, past illnesses, head injuries, have secondary importance and act only as the catalysts of the psychopathological process. There are various types of schizophrenia that differ in symptomatic manifestation.


Schizophrenia occurs in 1-2% of people, and the first symptoms usually appear in adolescence. The disorder is characterized by productive and negative symptoms. Negative symptoms are those qualities that a person loses due to the illness. For example, an ill person becomes apathetic, in other words, lacks emotions. Moreover, their thinking becomes torn: the patient is not able to clearly and consistently express their thoughts. On the other hand, productive or positive symptoms are secondary. They usually include illusions, hallucinations, catatonia, and delusions.

According to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), there are the following forms of schizophrenia. The first one is a paranoid type which is characterized by delusions of persecution, relationships, greatness as well as true auditory hallucinations and pseudo-hallucinations that can be visual, olfactory, and tactile. The second type is called hebephrenic, and it develops in adolescence. Hebephrenic schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral disorders, grimacing, mannerisms, unpredictability, fragmentation of thought and speech. The third is catatonic schizophrenia, which is marked by negativism, mutism, freezing in the same position, catatonic stupor or excitement as well as copying other people’s statements, movements, and facial expressions. The next type is undifferentiated schizophrenia. It has symptoms of schizophrenia without the predominance of any of them. Scientists also mention post-schizophrenic depression as another type of schizophrenia. As a result of the illness, depression develops in addition to some schizophrenia symptoms. One more type of schizophrenia is a simple form. Usually, these patients are introverted and indifferent toward themselves and others. Moreover, they are prone to vagrancy and inappropriate behavior, paralogous and ambivalent thinking. The last type is residual schizophrenia. It is a chronic course of schizophrenia that has negative symptoms, such as emotional flattening, for example.

To conclude, different forms of mental disorders, schizophrenia in particular, are characterized by specific symptoms. Based on these particular features, there have been developed the classifications of the illnesses, which help to understand what to expect from the patients. Thus, it is likely that the further research of the symptoms will give an insight into the more effective preventive measures for the illness relapses.

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