Eczema is a fairly common ailment that affects the skin. It is impossible to identify the causes of eczema, because it develops as a result of the complex influence of external and internal factors on the body. This paper observes and discusses the signs and symptoms of eczema as well as informs clinicians how to appropriately diagnose, treat, manage this disease, and interact with a patient.


Pathophysiology and Epidemiology

Eczema is a chronic relapsing inflammation of the superficial layers of the skin. This pathology takes almost a half of all skin diseases and affects both men and women (Schmitt & Apfelbacher, 2011). As many findings reveal, all age groups, ranging from four months babies to elderly people, are susceptible to this skin disease (Lawton, 2011). Admittedly, risk factors for eczema include disorders of the central and vegetative nervous systems, endocrine disorders, and problems with metabolism. Infection, allergic processes, bad heredity, and disorders of the immune system play an important role in the development of this skin disease.

A series of internal and external factors predetermine the causes of eczema. Thus, internal factors include genetic predisposition and sensitization, i.e. an increased sensitivity to the effects of various stimuli that cause allergic reactions (Thomsen, 2014). External reasons may involve thermal, chemical, mechanical, and biological factors.

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Protocol for Clinical Management

The signs and symptoms of eczema include intense itching, skin inflammation characterized by redness, skin thickening, rash of different sizes, the development of red bumps and painful cracks in the skin as well as rash bubbles that tend to burst, covering the skin with sores. Admittedly, rash is usually located on the neck (Fisker et al., 2013). Some clinical signs manifest themselves differently in terms of their color and dryness.

First of all, diagnosis of eczema should be fast and accurate, because it develops quickly, and, thus, the timely treatment facilitates a speedy recovery from illness (Walker, 2016). To confirm the diagnosis of eczema and prescribe adequate medicine, it is necessary to examine the patient, collect medical history, and implement instrumental methods of investigation (Fisker et al., 2013). There is no necessity of undergoing laboratory tests; however, the doctor may recommend allergy testing.

The treatment consists of avoiding the contact with chemical irritants, nutrition organization, the elimination of itching, as well as a local impact on the affected area by means of ointments and creams. Clinicians should include sedatives and antihistamines. Furthermore, it is advisable to drink sorbents as well as use hydrocortisone ointment, steroids, and ultraviolet irradiation. A doctor can prescribe antihistamines, hydrocortisone, corticosteroids, drugs that may improve the functioning of the immune system, and ultraviolet light therapy (Ritz, 2011).

It is vital to treat patients with eczema with a great concern, offering them a wide choice of modern diagnostic tools and methods. A stress-free environment must become a primary focus of advanced clinicians.

Cultural Considerations

In the USA, people conscientiously maintain the hygiene of their skin, and, thus, the presence of spots can be an alarming situation (Thomsen, 2014). Many patients with eczema put lotion on their skin to mask it, while others try to avoid people and stay at home. In general, all patients feel frustrated because of their appearance. Therefore, clinicians should help them overcome this barrier and return them to their usual daily activities. For example, they recommend meeting more often with friends or doing physical exercises.


To summarize, eczema may occur because of a series of internal and external factors, which form a complex relationship. In order to prevent this illness, physicians should know how to diagnose, treat, and conduct a follow-up examination. Finally, while dealing with patients, it is necessary to consider cultural differences.

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